68 SEPTEMBER 2023 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG Introduction Macrogenetics is a rapidly growing field that analyzes genetic data from many species to understand patterns of genetic variation. It leverages advancements in biology, laboratory technology, data analysis, and open science to study how environmental factors and life-history traits influence genetic variation. Its focus is on large-scale questions about genes, species, and their interactions worldwide. Since its debut in 2017, it has made a significant impact on various topics such as evolutionary biology and conservation biology (Blanchet et al. 2017). In a recent publication, it is even specified as a standalone discipline referred to as “Conservation Macrogenetics,” which examines how human activities and policies impact biodiversity at different levels (Schmidt et al. 2023). By analyzing genetic data, scientists gain insights into the effects of human-driven factors on genes, species, and ecosystems. This knowledge aids in informing conservation and environmental policies, considering the complexity and resilience of biological systems. Aquaculture similarly bears the history of human activities and policies intersecting with animal husbandry. Moreover, modern aquaculture has greatly benefited from commercial genomic tools, enabling a “big data” approach in quantitative genetic applications like genomic selection (Meuwissen et al. 2001). The next step for aquaculture is to embrace its own version of macrogenetics. Unique challenges The uniqueness of aquaculture macrogenetics stems from the profit-driven nature of aquaculture. The long and extensive history of intentionally transferring genetics and intensively cultivating aquatic species has shattered the assumptions of conservation genetics. Therefore, aquaculture macrogenetics will bear much stronger anthropological features. The shrimp industry serves as a good example. Global GxE GxE, or Genotype-byEnvironment interaction, refers to the combined effect of an individual’s genetic makeup (genes) and the environment in which they live. It describes how an individual’s genetic traits interact with the surrounding environment to influence the expression of specific characteristics. Vannamei shrimp, as the dominant aquaculture crustacean species, has been cultured in at least 27 countries around the world. The species’ ability to tolerate a wide range of salinities, its resilience in both indoor and outdoor settings, and its short life-cycle make it an ideal subject for farmers to apply their ingenuity and innovation On a global scale, genome data from different culture environments can provide in-depth understanding of shrimp performance in various geographic areas. Research in this area can help farmers determine whether a domesticated population possesses genetic advantages over internationally commercialized populations. As a result, it contributes to the sustainable development of the aquaculture economy. Global supply-chain Aquaculture now plays a vital role in the global supply chain, with shrimp being a significant export commodity for many developing countries. As a result, shrimp culture has established its supply chain structure in these regions, involving local and international feed and nutrition providers, machinery and service personnel for feeding and harvesting, and transportation equipment. This upstream and downstream integration can have a considerable impact. Raw materials such as soybean, corn, and wheat, which are also global commodities, form the foundation of shrimp feed and nutrition. Changes in the sourcing of these raw materials within the supply chain can inadvertently exert selection pressure on cultured shrimp. Unfortunately, the world is experiencing food crises, crop The Need for Aquaculture Macrogenetics: Using the Shrimp Industry as an Example E Hu. PhD Macrogenetics involves the integration of a number of biological, technological and data analysis disciplines. The uniqueness of aquaculture macrogenetics stems from the profit-driven nature of aquaculture. The long and extensive history of intentionally transferring genetics and intensively cultivating aquatic species has shattered the assumptions of conservation genetics. Therefore, aquaculture macrogenetics will bear much stronger anthropological features. The shrimp industry serves as a good example.