World Aquaculture - September 2023

WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • SEPTEMBER 2023 69 shortages, and trade route blockades, affecting many countries and millions of people. Understanding the aquaculture genome data in these regions can turn these significant events into natural experiments, enabling a better grasp of genetic shifts. Similarly, the global supply chain’s accessibility to different levels of equipment and electronics can directly or indirectly influence the genetic structure of shrimp populations. Policies and regulations also play a significant role in the supply chain structure. While some countries prohibit the importation of shrimp genetics, others may heavily restrict outside sources. However, research-level transfers and smuggling are supported by individual interests. Comprehensive big data analysis of genome data across various regions can provide more accurate insights into whether genetics from unofficial channels have affected the shrimp farming economy. Furthermore, since the ocean remains the primary source of fish meal and fish oil, coastal countries’ fisheries policies directly impact the quantity and species of raw material. Although the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) regulates fishing in international waters, the variety of execution adds complexity. The fishing of Antarctica krill serves as an example. Regions that heavily utilize Antarctica krill as shrimp nutrition sources may witness changes at the shrimp genome level. Genetic resources management Since the 1990s, shrimp genetic companies have been globally transferring shrimp broodstock in an organized manner. There are also numerous activities involving the off-the-record or even illegal transfer and acquisition of shrimp genetics. Tracking, analyzing, conserving, and distributing shrimp genetics are vital to the existing network, and this is where aquaculture macrogenetics excels. Obtaining the genomic profile of a specialized shrimp population unlocks transformative applications in aquaculture (Hu 2021). It enables a traceability program to track origin and movement, brand the animals, and instill consumer confidence. Moreover, the genomic data facilitates controlled hybridization, leading to precise genetic improvements like disease resistance and growth rate. This empowers the aquaculture industry to develop superior shrimp strains, ensuring long-term sustainability and profitability while embracing precision aquaculture practices. A commercialized germplasm cryopreservation technique holds the potential to spark a profound revolution in the shrimp genetics market, offering unprecedented advancements in quantity and quality. By cryopreserving spermatophores or nauplii and evaluating the genetics at the macrogenetics level, the constraints of time and space are transcended, ushering in an era where valuable genetic resources can be preserved for extended periods and utilized across multiple generations. This breakthrough would mean that highly desirable and genetically superior individuals could be perpetuated and propagated over time, shifting the focus from conventional “valued lines” to the recognition and appreciation of “valued individuals.” This transformation in the market can lead to unparalleled levels of genetic diversity, resilience, and adaptability, empowering the aquaculture industry to optimize breeding programs, bolster productivity, and ensure sustainable genetic resource management for a thriving future in shrimp farming. Bottlenecks At present, Aquaculture Macrogenetics faces several bottlenecks that hinder its full potential, primarily related to the availability and accessibility of genomic data from shrimp worldwide. Data availability and accessibility Shrimp farming, like other aquaculture endeavors, is predominantly a private activity, and specialized shrimp lines are treated as valuable proprietary resources. As a result, their genomic data are typically not publicly accessible. Only a select few research institutes globally have the capability to access information from multiple shrimp lines. Surveying local shrimp populations poses even greater challenges. Overcoming these limitations and fostering the growth of aquaculture macrogenetics will necessitate collaboration between the public sector and private companies to establish a comprehensive database that sustains the progress and potential of this field. Genotyping technique and analysis technique of mixed samples The high fecundity of shrimp has undoubtedly been advantageous. However, it can also become burdensome when dealing with a large sample size for genotyping. Despite the optimization efforts made by technology and service providers in shrimp genotyping, there is still room for improvement. One potential solution is genotyping pooled samples, which can significantly reduce costs. However, further developments are required at the analysis stage to make sense of the data at the population genetics level. Future We must prioritize and invest in aquaculture macrogenetics. This interdisciplinary field has great potential to change how we understand genetic variation, adaptation, and disease resistance in farmed aquatic species. By providing research funding and resources, we can drive innovation, inform policy decisions, and promote sustainable practices in aquaculture. Notes E Hu, Primo Broodstock USA LLC, 3901 County Line Ditch Rd., Mims, Florida 32754 USA References Blanchet, S., J.G. Prunier and H. De Kort. 2017. Time to go bigger: emerging patterns in macrogenetics. Trends in Genetics 33(9):579-580. Hu, E. 2021. The characteristics of a disease-resistant shrimp line: From quantitative observation to genomic signature. World Aquaculture 52(4):68-69. Meuwissen, T.H., B.J. Hayes and M. Goddard. 2001. Prediction of total genetic value using genome-wide dense marker maps. Genetics 157(4):1819-1829. Schmidt, C., S. Hoban and W. Jetz. 2023. Conservation macrogenetics.