66 SEPTEMBER 2023 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG of the opinion that the dissemination of invasive species information primarily through media in Buddhist-dominated communities could prove effective, although television and radio may be especially useful for reaching remote regions where temple organizers have less access to the internet. Environmental awareness could be incorporated into educational curricula of primary and secondary schools. Considering the wide influence the movie ‘Finding Nemo’ had on the marine ornamental fish hobby, the movie industry could be further employed to help in the education and dissemination of information on the potential impacts of release of exotic species. Zoos and public aquariums should be encouraged to take in fish from the public and to discourage the practice of abandoned fish or release of fish to natural waters. More national and regional governments must be encouraged to develop stringent regulatory guidelines and policy for the import of non-native fishes and introductions of potentially invasive aquatic species in line with Article 8(h) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD 2005) encouraging nations to “as far as possible and appropriate, prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species.” Sanctions, fines and imprisonments could be applied where necessary. Conclusions Although fish farming and aquarium fish keeping are done in controlled environments, risks of escape and likelihood of contamination of local biodiversity are very high, particularly in developing countries where regulations are rarely enforced. The development of databases on fish biodiversity can be an important decision-making tool for conservation and management of fisheries. Education of the general public could reduce overall rates of introduction and possibly lead to mitigation of the damaging consequences of exotic species. Encouragement of the production of ornamental fish in indoor facilities using water-recirculating systems can further minimize any potential accidental introductions and impacts to the environment. Although Nigeria is endowed with favourable climatic conditions for breeding and rearing a wide range of tropical and cool water ornamental fish species for local use and export, the industry is grossly untapped. Instead, large volumes of exotic fish are imported annually. There is an urgent need for a turn-around. It is unacceptable that there is currently no consistency of approach to the coordination of biosecurity between nations. Biosecurity practices should ideally commence offshore or preborder, as exotic aquatic organisms introduced in one country may find their way to neighbouring countries. Notes Professor Anthony A. Nlewadim and Okey Alum-Udensi are academics with the Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management, College of Natural Resources and Environmental Management. Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. Nigeria. Corresponding email: email@example.com References Acha, P. N. and B. Szyfres. 2003. Zoonoses and communicable diseases common to man and animals. Vol. I. Bacterioses and mycoses. 3rd ed. Scientific and Technical Publication No. 580, Pan American Health Organization, Regional Office of the WHO, Washington, USA. Adaka, G. S. L, J. P. Udoh and D. C. Onyeukwu. 2014. Freshwater fish diversity of a tropical rainforest river in southeast Nigeria. Advances in Life Science and Technology 23:16-23. Agoramoorthy, G. and M. J. Hsu. 2005. Religious freeing of wildlife promotes alien species invasion. BioScience 55:5–6. Agoramoorthy, G. and M. Hsu. 2007. Ritual releasing of wild animals threatens island ecology. Human Ecology 35:251–254. Alum-Udensi, O. and A. Uka. 2017. 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