60 SEPTEMBER 2023 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG Other Research Uses: Fish cell lines are used to study thermosensitivity, effects of antibiotics, responses of cells to pathogens, and to standardize disease diagnostic methods (Grondel et al. 1985, Fierro-Castro et al. 2013, Morin et al. 2020). Since toxins produced by some fish species have pharmacological and therapeutic applications (Church and Hodgson 2002, Pandey and Upadhyay 2020), venom gland organoids maintained via 3-D technology can be used to produce venom. Limitations Though there are many advantages in using FCLs in research, there are some concerns. Frequent culture of cells can cause mutations leading to genotypic and phenotypic variations (Bahia et al. 2002). Another concern is misidentification or cell line crosscontamination (Ford et al. 2021). Additionally, several biological pathways cannot be represented by cell lines, limiting their use in certain research areas. Conclusions The utilities of FCLs in various research fields are expanding rapidly. Across the world, an increased number of cell line-based products are generated and research efforts are underway to facilitate highly productive FCLs. In the coming years, the FCL field will see diverse applications in molecular biology especially in the production of recombinant proteins. While there are some problems associated with these systems, the benefits and applications far outweigh the disadvantages. FCLs can be utilized in early disease diagnosis and development of vaccines, improving fish welfare and aquaculture production. However, the availability of suitable FCLs is currently limited, which is a major concern in this area. Considering the wide diversity of fish species, there is untapped potential for the development of FCLs, further allowing their use in diverse research areas. 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