WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • SEPTEMBER 2023 45 The utilization of exogenous enzymes as additives in aquafeeds has expanded rapidly. Even though the social and economic benefit of exogenous enzymes has already been established, the future of feeds based on incorporating enzymes is a dazzling one for the aquaculture industry. Notes Mir Ishfaq Nazir, Department of Fish Nutrition, Biochemistry and Physiology, ICAR-CIFE, Mumbai-400 06, India. Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org Irfan Ahmad Bhat, Division of Fish Genetics and Biotechnology, ICAR-CIFE, Mumbai-400 061, India. Ngairangbam Sushila, Division of Aquatic Animal Health Management, ICAR-CIFE, Mumbai-400 061,India Jaffer Yousf Dar, Division of Aquatic Environment and Management, ICAR-CIFE, Mumbai-400 061, India References Adeoye, A., A. R. Yomla, A. Jaramillo-Torres, A. Rodiles, D. L. Merrifield and S. J. Davies. 2016. Combined effects of exogenous enzymes and probiotic on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) growth, intestinal morphology and microbiome. Aquaculture 463:61-70. Buchanan, J., H. Z. Sarac, D. Poppi and R. T. Cowan. 1997. Effects of enzyme addition to canola meal in prawn diets. Aquaculture 151:29-35. Carter, C. G. and R. C. Hauler. 2000. Fish meal replacement by plant meals in extruded feeds for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Aquaculture 185(3):299-311. D’Andrea, S., H. Guillou, S. Jan, D. Catheline, J. N. Thibault, M. Bouriel, V. Rioux and P. Legrand. 2002. The same rat Δ6desaturase not only acts on 18- but also on 24-carbon fatty acids in very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Biochemical Journal 364: 49–55. De Silva, S. S. and T. A. Anderson. 1995. Fish Nutrition in Aquaculture. Chapman and Hall, London, U.K. Farhangi, M. and C. G. Carter. 2007. Effect of enzyme supplementation to dehulled lupin-based diets on growth, feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility and carcass composition of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquaculture Research 38: 1274-1282. Forster, I., D. A. Higgs, B. S. Dosanjh, M. Rowshandeli and J. Parr. 1999. Potential for dietary phytase to improve the nutritive value of canola protein concentrate and decrease phosphorus output in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) held in 11o C fresh water. Aquaculture 179(1):109-125. Hardy, R.W. 2000. New development in aquatic feed ingredients and potential of enzyme supplements. Proceedings of the International Simposium de Nutricion Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Heird, W. C. and A. Lapillonne. 2005. The role of essential fatty acids in development. Annual Review of Nutrition 25: 549-571. Innis, S. M. 1991. Essential fatty acids in growth and development. Progress in Lipid Research 30: 39-103. Jackson, L. S., M. H. Li and E. H. Robinson. 1996. Use of microbial phytase in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus diets to improve utilization of phytate phosphorus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 27: 309-313. Jump, D. B. 2002. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and regulation of gene transcription. Current Opinion in Lipidology 13(2): 155-164. Lin, S., K. Mai and B. Tan. 2007. Effects of exogenous enzyme supplement in diets on growth and feed utilization in tilapia, O. niloticus and O. aureus. Aquaculture Research 38:1645-1653. Magalhaes, R., T. Lopes, N. Martins, P. Díaz-Rosales, A. Couto, Pousão-Ferreira, P. and H. Peres. 2016. Carbohydrases supplementation increased nutrient utilization in white seabream (Diplodus sargus) juveniles fed high soybean meal diets. Aquaculture 463:43-50. NRC (National Research Council). 1993. Nutrient requirements of fish on animal nutrition board on Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. USA. Racine, R. A. and R. J. Deckelbaum. 2007. Sources of the very-longchain unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids: Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care 10: 123–128. Regost, C., J. Arzel, J. Robin, G. Rosenlund and S. J. Kaushik. 2003. Total replacement of fish oil by soybean or linseed oil with a return to fish oil in turbot (Psetta maxima): Growth performance, flesh fatty acid profile, and lipid metabolism. Aquaculture 217:465-482. Sargent, J. R., D. R. Tocher and J. G. Bell. 2002. The lipids. Pages 181–257 In: J. Halver and E. Hardy (editors). Fish Nutrition (Third edition). Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA. Shi, X., Z. Luo, F. Chen, C. Huang, X. M. Zhu and X. Liu. 2016. Effects of dietary cellulase addition on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile crucian carp Carassius auratus. Aquaculture Nutrition. doi:10.1111/ anu.12429. Soltan, M. A. 2009. Effect of dietary fishmeal replacement by poultry by-product meal with different grain source and enzyme supplementation on performance, faeces recovery, body composition and nutrient balance of Nile tilapia. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8(4): 395-407. Sprecher, H., 1981. Biochemistry of essential fatty acids. Progress in Lipid Research 20:13-22. Tidwell, J. H. and G. L. Allan. 2002. Fish as food: aquaculture’s contribution. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 33: 44-48. Tocher, D. R. 2010. Fatty acid requirements in ontogeny of marine and freshwater fish. Aquaculture Research 41: 717-732. Zhou, Y., X. Yuan, X. F. Liang, L. Fang, J. Li, X. Guo and S. He. 2013. Enhancement of growth and intestinal flora in grass carp: the effect of exogenous cellulase. Aquaculture 416:1-7. Enzymes can play a great role in formulation of eco-friendly aquafeeds. The utilization of exogenous enzymes has the potential of replacing fishmeal partially or completely. This, in turn, can help to reduce the demand for fishmeal from the aquaculture sector in upcoming years.