68 JUNE 2023 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG • Potential for use in diverse applications. Antimicrobial peptides have potential applications beyond therapeutic agents, including in food preservation, wound healing, and agricultural and aquaculture industries. • Cost-effective. Moreover, unlike antibiotics, which require a high dose to be effective, AMPs are active at lower concentrations, which can help reduce the cost and environmental impact of disease control in aquaculture. AMPs have a short half-life; they do not accumulate in the environment or in the tissues of farmed aquatic animals, making them a safer option for disease control. Overall, the unique properties of AMPs make them a promising alternative to antibiotics for the treatment of infectious diseases. However, the use of AMPs in aquaculture also faces several challenges, such as the high cost of producing synthetic or recombinant AMPs, the potential for toxicity to non-target organisms and the need to optimize the delivery methods and dosages of the peptides. Further research is needed to optimize their therapeutic potential and overcome limitations, such as low stability and high production cost. Future Prospectus By continuing to explore and develop the use of AMPs in aquaculture, we can improve farmed aquatic animal health and well-being while reducing the environmental impact of traditional antibiotic use. In the way forward, it is important to continue developing and refining methods for synthesizing and delivering AMPs to aquaculture systems and to conduct further studies to evaluate fully their efficacy and safety (Bhat et al. 2020). Efforts should be made to explore the potential use of combination therapies, where AMPs are used in conjunction with other treatments to enhance their effectiveness. The development of new technologies, such as nanotechnology and gene editing like the CRISPR-Cas9 system, or even their use as nutraceuticals could also be explored as potential tools to improve the effectiveness and delivery of AMPs in aquaculture (Valero et al. 2020). Collaborative efforts between industry stakeholders, researchers and policymakers should also be encouraged to ensure the responsible and sustainable use of AMPs in aquaculture. Overall, continued research and development in the field of AMPs in aquaculture could significantly improve the health and welfare of farmed aquatic animals, reduce the reliance on antibiotics and thereby improve the sustainability of aquaculture production. Notes Raja Aadil Hussain Bhat, Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Bhimtal-263136, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India Irfan Ahmad Bhat, University of Iceland, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland Dar Jaffer Yousuf, IGB Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587 Berlin, Germany Mir Ishfaq Nazir, DIVA, TNJFU-Tamil Nadu Dr. J. Jayalalithaa Fisheries University, Muttukadu-603112, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India References Amarasiri, M., D. Sano and S. Suzuki. 2020. Understanding human health risks caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in water environments: Current knowledge and questions to be answered. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 50:20162059. Bhat, R.A.H., V.C. Khangembam, D. Thakuria, V. Pant, R.S. Tandel, G. Tripathi and D.Sarma. 2022a. Antimicrobial activity of an artificially designed peptide against fish pathogens. 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