World Aquaculture - June 2023

WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • JUNE 2023 37 FIGURE 3. Packaging of live Artemia biomass for transport. essential amino acids (arginine, histidine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, isoleucine and valine) and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), linolenic acid and arachidonic acid. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis of Artemia cysts (Fig. important criteria for proper site selection of Artemia production. Artemia franciscana Vinh Chau strain cysts were imported from Vietnam for the inoculation. Standard hatching procedures were applied (Rahman et al. 2022). It is critical to inoculate instar 1 Artemia nauplii in the culture pond (Fig. 2). Artemia pond production includes algae ponds and Artemia culture ponds. Algae ponds comprise 20-25 percent of the production area. Salinity of Artemia culture ponds should maintain a minimum of 70 g/l. Inorganic fertilizers (urea, triple super phosphate) and organic fertilizers (cow dung, chicken manure) are used for natural productivity in algae ponds and Artemia ponds. Approximately 1-3 cm of algae pond water is transferred 2-3 times per week, depending on food demand and water salinity. Artemia biomass and cysts can be harvested from one month after inoculation (Fig. 3). Quality of Artemia Cysts and Biomass Artemia biomass (Fig. 4) produced in ponds was tested for the presence of three major shrimp pathogens — white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) and Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) through conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using OiE-recommended protocols. All samples were negative for these pathogens. Nutritional analysis determined that Artemia biomass contains 43-45 percent crude protein and 6-7 percent crude fat. It contains FIGURE 2. Artemia nauplii inoculation of ponds. FIGURE 4. Concentrated Artemia biomass. FIGURE 5. Pond harvest of Artemia cysts. (CONTINUED ON PAGE 38)